** PETROLEUM NEVER NEEDED FOR 120 YEARS !!! **
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BETSY ROSS DESCENDANT. A REAL SON-UV-A-1776 !!!
I saw the movie. What can I do about it?
Become active in your community. Let people know that electric cars are possible and that there are people who would be glad to purchase them if they are made available.
On this site, you will find several options for how you can join your local chapters,join the EAA
Electric Vehicles are on the Roads Today !!
Many people are not aware that Electric Vehicles are real today! They are more than just a future promise from automakers. Some EVs are production vehicles used as daily commuter cars while others are one-of-a-kind custom projects.
Checkout these videos to see some actual EV cars and trucks owned by Silicon Valley EAA members. Some interesting facts in these videos. Were you aware that Vacaville, CA may be the most EV-friendly town in America as shown by this "Back To the Future" ABC news report? At the other end of the state, our San Diego EAA chapter is educating high school teachers how to convert a normal gas car into an EV...
The Electric Auto Association (EAA) is a non-profit educational organization formed in 1967 in San Jose, California to promote the widespread adoption of Electric Vehicles (see our mission statement).
Electric vehicles (EVs) are practical, clean, quiet alternatives to noisy, pollution-spewing gasoline and diesel vehicles. Electric Vehicles keep our Earth cleaner and help preserve our natural resources. EVs are a smart and efficient choice for personal transportation. To find out more:
* FIRST ELECTRIC CAR 1828 !! *
The tzero on the left can go up to 300 miles (480 km) at 70 mph (110 km/h) using Li-ion batteries, while the EV1 on the right has a range of 160 miles at 65 mph using NiMh batteries, or 80 miles (130 km) with lead acid ones.
 1830s to 1900s: Early history
Electricity is one of the oldest automobile propulsion methods still in use today. The invention of the electric vehicle is attributed to various people, including the Hungarian inventor of the electric motor, Ányos Jedlik, Vermont blacksmith Thomas Davenport, Professor Sibrandus Stratingh of Groningen, the Netherlands, and Scotsmen Robert Davidson and Robert Anderson. The invention of improved battery technology, including efforts by Gaston Plante in France in 1865, as well as his fellow countryman Camille Faure in 1881, paved the way for electric cars to flourish in Europe. France and the United Kingdom were the first nations to support the widespread development of electric vehicles, while the lack of natural fossil resources in Switzerland resulted in the rapid electrification of its railway network to reduce its dependence on foreign energy. English inventor Thomas Parker, who was responsible for innovations such as electrifying the London Underground, overhead tramways in Liverpool and Birmingham, and the smokeless fuel coalite, claimed to have perfected a working electric car as early as 1884. Before the pre-eminence of internal combustion engines, electric automobiles also held many speed and distance records. Among the most notable of these records was the breaking of the 100 km/h (62 mph) speed barrier, by Camille Jenatzy on April 29, 1899 in his 'rocket-shaped' vehicle Jamais Contente, which reached a top speed of 105.88 km/h (65.79 mph). Before the 1920s, electric automobiles were competing with petroleum-fueled cars for urban use of a quality service car.
German electric car, 1904, with the chauffeur on top
It was not until 1895 that Americans began to devote attention to electric vehicles, after A.L. Ryker introduced the first electric tricycles to the US, many innovations followed, and interest in motor vehicles increased greatly in the late 1890s and early 1900s. In 1897, electric vehicles found their first commercial application as a fleet of electrical New York City taxis, built by the Electric Carriage and Wagon Company of Philadelphia, was established. Electric cars were produced in the US by Anthony Electric, Baker, Columbia, Anderson, Edison, Studebaker, Riker, and others during the early 20th century. In 1917, the first gasoline-electric hybrid car was released by the Woods Motor Vehicle Company of Chicago. The hybrid was a commercial failure, proving to be too slow for its price, and too difficult to service.
Despite their relatively slow speed, electric vehicles had a number of advantages over their early-1900s competitors. They did not have the vibration, smell, and noise associated with gasoline cars. Changing gears on gasoline cars was the most difficult part of driving, and electric vehicles did not require gear changes. Electric cars found popularity among well-heeled customers who used them as city cars, where their limited range proved to be even less of a disadvantage. The cars were also preferred because they did not require a manual effort to start, as did gasoline cars which featured a hand crank to start the engine. Electric cars were often marketed as suitable vehicles for women drivers due to this ease of operation.
Acceptance of electric cars was initially hampered by a lack of power infrastructure, but by 1912, many homes were wired for electricity, enabling a surge in the popularity of the cars. At the turn of the century, 40 percent of American automobiles were powered by steam, 38 percent by electricity, and 22 percent by gasoline. 33,842 electric cars were registered in the United States, and America became the country where electric cars had gained the most acceptance. Sales of electric cars peaked in 1912.
1920s to 1980s: Gasoline dominates
The low range of electric cars meant they could not make use of the new highways to travel between cities
After enjoying success at the beginning of the century, the electric car began to lose its position in the automobile market. Factors including improved road infrastructure in the 1920s and the discovery of large reserves of petroleum in Texas, Oklahoma, and California paved the way for gasoline cars to gain popularity, with their longer range and newly-affordable fuel. Electric cars were limited to urban use by their slow speed and low range, and gasoline cars were now able to travel farther and faster than equivalent electrics. Gasoline cars became ever easier to operate thanks to the invention of the electric starter by Charles Kettering in 1912, which eliminated the need of a hand crank for starting a gasoline engine, and the noise emitted by ICE cars became more bearable thanks to the use of the muffler, which had been invented by Hiram Percy Maxim in 1897. Finally, the initiation of mass production of gas-powered vehicles by Henry Ford brought the price as low $440 in 1915 (equivalent to roughly $9,200 today). By contrast, in 1912, an electric roadster sold for $1,750 (roughly $39,000 today). By the 1920s, the heydey of electric cars had passed, and a decade later, the American electric automobile industry had effectively disappeared.
The Henney Kilowatt, a 1961 production electric car
Years passed without a major revival in the use of electric cars. While ICE development progressed at a brisk pace, electric vehicle technology stagnated. In 1947, the invention of the point-contact transistor brought about the creation of modern semiconductor controls and improved batteries; this led to new possibilities for electric propulsion. Within a decade of the creation of the transistor, Henney Coachworks and the National Union Electric Company, makers of Exide batteries, formed a joint venture to produce the first modern electric car based on transistor technology, the Henney Kilowatt. Despite the Kilowatt's improved performance with respect to previous electric cars, consumers found it too expensive compared to equivalent gasoline cars of the time, and production ended in 1961. Even though the Kilowatt was a commercial failure, its technology paved the way for the next generation of electric vehicles. On July 31, 1971, an electric car received the unique distinction of becoming the first manned vehicle to be driven on the Moon; that car was the Lunar rover, which was first deployed during the Apollo 15 mission. The "moon buggy" was developed by Boeing and Delco Electronics, and featured a DC drive motor in each wheel, and a pair of 36-volt silver-zinc potassium hydroxide non-rechargeable batteries.
Camille Jenatzy in electric car La Jamais Contente, 1899.
Electric car and antique car on display at a 1912 auto show in Toronto * 1899 *
** Benjamin Franklin Electrical Inventor Spirit of 1776 !! **
His discoveries included his investigations of electricity. Franklin proposed that "vitreous" and "resinous" electricity were not different types of "electrical fluid" (as electricity was called then), but the same electrical fluid under different pressures. He was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively, and he was the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge. In 1750, he published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm that appeared capable of becoming a lightning storm. On May 10, 1752, Thomas-François Dalibard of France conducted Franklin's experiment using a 40-foot (12 m)-tall iron rod instead of a kite, and he extracted electrical sparks from a cloud. On June 15, Franklin may have possibly conducted his famous kite experiment in Philadelphia and also successfully extracted sparks from a cloud, although there are theories that suggest he never performed the experiment. Franklin's experiment was not written up until Joseph Priestley's 1767 History and Present Status of Electricity; the evidence shows that Franklin was insulated (not in a conducting path, since he would have been in danger of electrocution in the event of a lightning strike). Others, such as Prof. Georg Wilhelm Richmann of Saint Petersburg, Russia, were electrocuted during the months following Franklin's experiment. In his writings, Franklin indicates that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical, as shown by his use of the concept of electrical ground. If Franklin did perform this experiment, he may not have done it in the way that is often described, flying the kite and waiting to be struck by lightning, as it could have been dangerous. The popular television program MythBusters simulated the alleged "key at the end of a string" Franklin experiment and established with a degree of certainty that, if Franklin had indeed proceeded thus, he would undoubtedly have been killed. Instead, he used the kite to collect some electric charge from a storm cloud, which implied that lightning was electrical.
On October 19 in a letter to England explaining directions for repeating the experiment, Franklin wrote:
When rain has wet the kite twine so that it can conduct the electric fire freely, you will find it streams out plentifully from the key at the approach of your knuckle, and with this key a phial, or Leiden jar, maybe charged: and from electric fire thus obtained spirits may be kindled, and all other electric experiments [may be] performed which are usually done by the help of a rubber glass globe or tube; and therefore the sameness of the electrical matter with that of lightening completely demonstrated.
Franklin's electrical experiments led to his invention of the lightning rod. He noted that conductors with a sharp rather than a smooth point were capable of discharging silently, and at a far greater distance. He surmised that this knowledge could be of use in protecting buildings from lightning, by attaching "upright Rods of Iron, made sharp as a Needle and gilt to prevent Rusting, and from the Foot of those Rods a Wire down the outside of the Building into the Ground;...Would not these pointed Rods probably draw the Electrical Fire silently out of a Cloud before it came nigh enough to strike, and thereby secure us from that most sudden and terrible Mischief!" Following a series of experiments on Franklin's own house, lightning rods were installed on the Academy of Philadelphia (later the University of Pennsylvania) and the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall) in 1752.
In recognition of his work with electricity, Franklin received the Royal Society's Copley Medal in 1753, and in 1756 he became one of the few eighteenth century Americans to be elected as a Fellow of the Society. The cgs unit of electric charge has been named after him: one franklin (Fr) is equal to one statcoulomb.
GEM IS CHRYSLER 'GLOBAL ELECTRIC MOTORCARS'
GEM Model Information for GEM eL XD
| From its almost six foot long bed to its extra driving range, the GEM eL XD provides extreme efficiency. The GEM eL XD can be used on-road, off-road, inside buildings, or anywhere the job takes you! Features include a 7.0 hp motor, nine 8-volt maintenance-free gel batteries for a range of up to 40 miles on a charge and a 70" x 48" flat bed with a 1,100 pound cargo capacity. Visit the Standard Features section to discover how the GEM eL XD can be an advantage in your home or facility. |
|GEM eL XD Specifications|
|Curb Weight ||1,550 lbs |
|GVW ||3,000 lbs |
|Payload Capacity ||1,450 lbs* |
|Length ||144" |
|Height ||71" |
|Width ||55" |
|Wheelbase ||114" |
|Cubic Feet of Cab ||47 ft |
|Turning Circle ||35 ft |
|Tires ||13-inch street-rated |
|Range ||Up to 40 miles |
|Top Speed (High Mode) ||25 mph |
|Top Speed (Low Mode) ||15 mph |
| ||Ladder Rack|
Ideal for transporting long items such as ladders, pipe, lumber or other building and maintenance supplies. Rated for up to 75 lbs of cargo.
Hard Doors with Trim
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|Hard Doors with Trim || |
These white hard doors have dropping windows and are made of lightweight ABS plastic, which are removable. The hard door package includes a right hand mirror and a rear window insert.
| ||LSV-100 Fast Charger |
The LSV-100 fast charger has a maximum output of 100Amps limited to 10kW total output power. The LSV-100 fast charger will typically charge GEM vehicles with six 12-volt batteries up to 80% of charge within 30 minutes and nine 8-volt batteries up to 80% of charge within 60 minutes. The LSV-100 fast charger will charge both flooded lead-acid and maintenance-free gel batteries and is easy to install and use making it an ideal addition to any GEM vehicle fleet.
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|LSV-2472 Convenience Charger || ||LSV-2472 Convenience Charger|
The LSV-2472 convenience charger is an off-board Level II 72VDC charger that provides a maximum output of 24Amps. The LSV-2472 convenience charger will typically charge GEM vehicles with six 12-volt batteries up to 80% state of charge within 2-4 hours, nine 8-volt batteries up to 80% of charge within 4-5 hours and a full charge within 4-8 hours depending on the size of the batteries used. The LSV-2472 convenience charger can be used with both flooded lead-acid and maintenance-free gel batteries.
|GEM e2 |
| || ||The GEM e2 two-passenger vehicle is perfect for quick transportation to work, school or anywhere within your neighborhood. Its minivan-like driving height provides maximum visibility and offers the features you need most for a comfortable driving experience. |
|GEM e4 |
| || ||The GEM e4 four-passenger vehicle is the solution for all your leisurely drives. Its exceptional get-in-and-go design provides an exciting, dependable and fun way to get around your neighborhood. |
|GEM e6 |
| || ||The GEM e6 six-passenger vehicle is ideal for larger families or shuttling groups of people in a variety of environments. Its curved, open architecture is truly unique and its modern and sophisticated design is sure to turn heads wherever you go.|
* Benjamin Franklin Electrified Spirit of 1776 *